DNA Full Form | What is DNA? Structure, Types

This article will take you through the complete information on DNA. After going through this article, you will develop a better understanding of DNA, DNA full form, structure, and more.

Also, know about the types of DNA and who discovered it. Also, we aim to make you know how long can DNA lasts on various surfaces and where is it found. Get along and explore.

Also Read:- DNA Replication steps

DNA Full Form

What is the full form of DNA?

DNA is the abbreviation of Deoxyribonucleic Acid. It is an organic compound with a unique molecular structure.

DNA is found in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.

What is DNA?

DNA is referred to as a group of molecules that are responsible for carrying and transmitting the hereditary materials or the genetic instructions to the offspring from their parents.

Apart from being responsible for genetic information inheritance in living beings, it has a crucial role in proteins production as well.

The DNA contained within the nucleus of every cell in a eukaryotic organism is nuclear DNA.

It codes for the organism’s genomes of the majority whereas the mitochondrial DNA and plastid DNA handles the rest.

Mitochondrial DNA is the one that is present in the mitochondria of the cell and is inherited to the child from the mother.

There are approximately 16000 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA in humans.

Also Read:- Schwann Cells

What is the structure of DNA?

DNA has a structure of like a twisted ladder. It is described as a double helix structure.

DNA is a nucleic acid. All nucleic acids are made up of nucleotide.

A molecule of DNA is composed of materials known as nucleotides.

Each nuclear tide has three different components which are phosphate groups, nitrogen bases, and sugar.

Nucleotides are the basic building blocks of DNA and are composed of a carbon sugar group, a nitrogen base, and a phosphate group.

The phosphate groups and sugar have the function to link the nuclear types together which form each strand of the DNA.

There are four types of Nitrogen bases which are as follows:-

  • Adenine (A)
  • Thymine (T)
  • Guanine (G)
  • Cytosine (C)

These bases are essential for the DNA double helix structure resembling the twisted ladder and pair together in the following way:-

  • A with T, and C with G

The order of the nitrogenous bases is a certain genetic code or the DNA instructions. Sugar forms the backbone of the DNA molecule and is also called deoxyribose.

The opposite strands of the nitrogenous bases form hydrogen bonds, forming a ladder-like structure.

What are the types of DNA?

There are three types of DNA which are as follows:-


The right-handed double helix which is similar to the B-DNA form is called the A-DNA. It is a rare type of structural confirmation that a DNA adopts under dehydrating conditions.

It has a short and more compact structural organization. It was discovered by Rosalind Franklin.


B-DNA is the most common and predominant type of structural conformation of DNA found in the cells.

The DNA occurs in this form under natural physiological conditions in the cell and is better described as the Watson-Cricket model of DNA.

It is a right-handed helix and was described by James Watson and Francis Crick for the first.


It is a left-handed double-helical conformation of DNA. In this, the double helix winds to the left in a zigzag pattern.

Andres Wang and Alexander Rich are credited for the discovery of Z-DNA.

It is usually located upstream of the start site of a gene and it may have some role in the regulation of gene expression.

Is DNA found in the blood?

An excellent source of human DNA is blood. However, not every cell in the human body has DNA.

However, DNA is not present in the red blood cell. This is because RBCs lose their nuclei as they mature.

The white blood cells of humans store the DNA.

Who found DNA?

Johannes Friedrich Miescher, a Swiss biologist, was the first person to recognize and identify it in 1869.

DNA was identified during his research with he was performing on white blood cells.

Later, James Watson and Francis Crick, through the experimental data, discovered the double helix structure of the DNA molecule.

The discovery finally proved that DNA is responsible for storing the genetic information of a human being.

How long can DNA last?

DNA has the potential to last for several time durations on different surfaces. It depends on the ideal conditions it requires.

According to researches, DNA can last for about 6.8 million years. All the bonds would be broken after that. However, DNA would not be readable after 1.5 million years.

Likewise, DNA has a different life span on clothes, hard surfaces, water, saliva, and other materials or substances.

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