What is Electric Current?

Introduction: There have been many inventions that have changed the world that now we live in but few had made a strong impact on the life of human beings around the globe. The electric current is one of them which we are going to discuss below.

Electric Current

What is the electric current in physics?

Definition:- The electric current in simple terms is the flow of charged particles through a medium called conductor such as a wire. For example, as we see water flows in a pipe from one end to another the same way current flows from negative to a positive point.

SI unit: The SI unit of electric current is Ampere and the conventional symbol for current is I. It is measured by using a device called an ammeter.

Ampere: It is the flow of electric charge across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second i.e. I=Q/t. where I is current, Q is Coulomb and t is time. One Coulomb is equivalent to 6.24 X 1018 charge.

Importance of current:-

Electricity is a form of energy that is produced by converting other forms of energy like natural gas, coal, oil, wind, solar energy, and nuclear energy, etc. Electricity is a very important invention of mankind. It is used in almost every field of our daily life. It provides comfort to people. Electricity is used for lighting rooms, fans, ACs running machines in factories and almost for everything that we encounter within our daily life.

Conductor: They are materials that allow the electron to flow freely from one particle to another. The capacity to transmit heat or electricity is called conductivity. Further depending on their conductivity solids are classified into good conductors, semiconductors, and insulators.

Good Conductor: Those objects that completely allows electricity to pass through them are known as good conductors. For example pure silver.

Semiconductors: These are the objects which partially allow the flow of electron through them under certain conditions. For example Germanium and Silicon.

Insulators: They don’t allow the flow of electrons at all. For example glass, mica and plastics are some good examples of insulators.

Gaseous are known as bad conductors of electricity as their atoms are far from each other to allow the flow of electrons.

What is the electric charge and why it is important?

Electric charge is the physical property of matter. There are two types of charges positive and negative. Like charge, for example, positive and positive will repel each other and unlike charge as positive and negative will attract each other.

If there is an equal amount of positive and negative charge in an object then it will be called electrically neutral. The proton carries positive charge and electron carries the negative charge electron.

SI Unit of electric charge: The SI unit of electric charge is coulomb which is equivalent to 6.24 X 1018 e. The charge of an electron is -1 and a proton is +1. The quantity of electric charge can be measured with an electrometer.

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