Latitude and Longitude of India | Meaning, Lat Long of Indian States

Latitude and Longitude of India

In this write-up, we will discuss the latitude and longitude of India. To provide a detailed approach to the topic, we have included various aspects and concepts related to latitudes and longitudes.

After going through this write-up, you will know the meaning of the latitude and longitude extent of India along with their meanings.

Also, we have provided the extent of Indian states. Explore more about latitudes and longitudes like other names, inventors, the difference between the two, major latitudes and longitudes, and much more.

What is latitude?

Latitude of a place on Earth refers to the distance north or south of the equator. It is measured along the meridian of than place as an angle from the Earth’s centre.

It is a geographic coordinate specifying the north-south position of a point on the planet’s surface.

They run east to west as circles that are parallel to the equator. Latitude ranges from 0° at the equator to 90° at the poles.

They are denoted as north and south based on their position on either side of the equator.

The part of the Earth to the south of the equator is termed as the southern hemisphere and the part to the north is termed as the northern hemisphere.

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What is longitude?

Longitude of a place on the Earth refers to the angular distance east or west of the Prime Meridian.

They can also be measured in degrees. Longitudes are the semi-circles that converge at the poles.

The longitudes intersect the equator at right angles. All longitudes are equal in length.

The Prime Meridian is a longitude passing through the Greenwich observatory which has been given the value as a 0° longitude.

From eastward and westward of the Prime Meridian, the longitudes vary from 0° to 180°.

The part of the Earth to the east of the Prime Meridian is called the eastern hemisphere while the part to the west is termed as the western hemisphere.

What is the latitude and longitude extent of India?

India is a vast country which entirely lies in the Northern hemisphere i.e., to the north of the equator.

The latitudinal extent of India is 8°4’N and 37°6’N and the longitudinal extent is 68°7’E and 97°25’E.

The Tropic of Cancer divides the country into almost two parts i.e., the northern and southern mainland passing at 23°30’N.

What is the latitude and longitude coordinates of Indian States?

In the list below, we have provided the latitude and longitude coordinates of Indian states and Union territories which are as follows:-

STATES/ UNION TERRITORIESLATITUDELONGITUDE
Andhra Pradesh15.9129° N79.7400° E
Arunachal Pradesh28.2180° N94.7278° E
Assam26.2006° N92.9376° E
Bihar25.0961° N85.3131° E
Chandigarh30.7333° N76.7794° E
Chhattisgarh21.2787° N81.8661° E
Goa15.2993° N74.1240° E
Haryana29.0588° N76.0856° E
Himachal Pradesh31.1048° N77.1734° E
Jammu and Kashmir33.7782° N76.5762° E
Jharkhand23.6102° N85.2799° E
Karnataka15.3173° N75.7139° E
Kerala10.8505° N76.2711° E
Madhya Pradesh22.9734° N78.6569° E
Maharashtra19.7515° N75.7139° E
Manipur24.6637° N93.9063° E
Meghalaya25.4670° N91.3662° E
Mizoram23.1645° N92.9376° E
Nagaland26.1584° N94.5624° E
Odisha20.9517° N85.0985° E
Punjab31.1471° N75.3412° E
Rajasthan27.0238° N74.2179° E
Sikkim27.5330° N88.5122° E
Tamil Nadu11.1271° N78.6569° E
Tripura23.9408° N91.9882° E
Telangana18.1124° N79.0193° E
Uttar Pradesh26.8467° N80.9462° E
Uttarakhand30.0668° N79.0193° E
West Bengal22.9868° N87.8550° E
Andaman and Nicobar11.7401° N92.6586° E
Dadra and Nagar Haveli20.1809° N73.0169° E
Delhi28.7041° N77.1025° E
Lakshadweep13.7000 ° N72.1833° E
Pondicherry11.9416° N79.8083° E
Daman and Diu20.4283° N72.8397° E

What is another name for longitude?

The Lines of Longitude are also referred to as Meridians.

Longitudes are also called meridians because, in geographical language, meridians are the great circles that intersect each other at the North and South poles and are not parallel to each other.

Likewise, longitudes meet at the poles and are not parallel to each other.

What is another name for latitude?

The Lines of Latitudes are also known as Parallels.

Latitudes are also called parallels because all the latitudes are parallel to each other and never intersect each other.

Also, all the latitudes are parallel to the equator. Any two latitudes considered are always the same distance apart.

What are the coordinates?

Geographical coordinates are the angular units that determine or specify every location on Earth’s surface by a set of numbers, letters, or symbols which is usually in decimal degrees.

A point is measured by two coordinate values i.e., the latitude and the longitude.

Who invented latitude and longitude?

Hipparchus, a Greek astronomer is credited as the inventor of latitude and longitude. He was the first one to specify the locations on the Earth’s surface using longitude and latitude coordinates.

The 0° Meridian was considered to be passing through the Rhodes Island.

Later in 1530, Gemma Frisius, a mathematician, proposed the method of calculating longitude with a clock.

In this method, the clock would be set upon the departure and kept at an absolute time. The time would be compared upon arrival.

Further in 1667, astronomer G.D. Cassini used Jupiter’s moons eclipses to ascertain the longitudes.

Then, in the mid-1700s, an amateur clockmaker from England, John Harrison produced a marine chronometer.

It was a spring-driven clock that measured the longitude to within a half-degree through the time difference from a set reference.

What is the difference between latitudes and longitudes?

We have provided in the table below the difference between latitudes and longitudes which is as follows:

BASIS OF DISTINCTIONLATITUDESLONGITUDES
MeaningLatitudes are the angular distance of a point to the north or south of the equator and are measured in degrees, minutes and seconds.Longitudes are the angular distance along the equator which is measured in degrees to the east or west of the Greenwich from 0 to 180 degrees.
Another nameThey are also called parallels or parallels of latitudesThey are also called Meridians or Meridians of longitude
CharacteristicAll the latitudes run parallel to the equatorAll the longitudes converge at the north and south poles
AppearanceLatitudes appear as complete circles running parallel to the equatorLongitudes are the semi-circles that run through and converge at the poles
Distance apartThe distance between two latitudes is 111 kilometres approximatelyThe distance between two longitudes is as follows: At the equator – 111.3 kilometresMid-way (45°) – 79 kilometresPoles – 0 kilometres
PurposeThey are used to demarcate the temperate zones which are as follows: 0° to 23½° N and S – Torrid zone23½° to 66½° – Temperate zone66½° to 90° – Frigid ZoneThey are used to determine the local time regarding the time at the Greenwich or Prime Meridian (0°)

How many latitudes are there in total?

In total, there are 181 degrees of latitudes with a distance of 111 kilometres between each degree of parallels of latitude.

However, there are 181 latitudes in total.

Out of the total latitudes, 90 lie to the south of the equator and 90 to the north of the equator and one is the equator.

How many longitudes are there in total?

In total there are 360 important longitudes on the globe. The Prime Meridian or Greenwich is the 0° longitude.

They range from 0° to 180° East and 0° to 180° west. 179 longitudes lie to the east of the Prime Meridian while 179 to the west.

The Prime Meridian and International Date Line are the other two longitudes.

What are the 7 major lines of latitude?

The lines of latitudes or parallels of latitudes are different in length. There are seven major lines of latitudes which are as follows:

North Pole

It is the northernmost point of the Earth and the precise point of intersection of the Earth’s axis and surface.

The latitude is 90° north and all the places and directions are south from this point.

It sits in the middle of the Arctic Ocean and is always covered with ice which is about 2 to 3 meters thick.

The region experiences 24 hours of sunlight in summer and 24 hours of darkness in the winter.

The Arctic Circle

The Arctic Circle lies at 66.5° north latitude. It stretches through 8 countries namely Canada, Greenland, the United States, Iceland, Sweden, Norway, Russia and Finland.

The latitude marks the beginning area where the sun will not rise during the winter solstice and not set during the summer solstice.

The Tropic of Cancer

The Tropic of Cancer lies at 23.5° north of the Equator. It runs through Bahamas, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, India, Mexico and southern China.

At the Tropic of Cancer, the sun is directly overhead on June 21. It is the beginning of summer in the Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of winter in the Southern hemisphere.

The Equator

It is located at 0° latitude and runs through Indonesia, northern Brazil, Ecuador, Kenya, the Democratic Republic of Congo among other countries.

The equator is 40,074 kilometres long and the sun is directly overhead at the noon on the spring and fall equinoxes.

The equator divides the Earth into the northern and southern hemispheres.

The Tropic of Capricorn

The Tropic of Capricorn lies at 23.5° south of the Equator. It runs through Chile, Australia, southern Brazil and northern South Africa.

At the Tropic of Capricorn, the sun is directly overhead at noon on December 21.

This is the beginning of winter in the northern hemisphere and the beginning of summer in the southern hemisphere.

The Antarctic Circle

The Arctic Circle lies at 66.5° south latitude. In the Antarctic Circle boundary, there is no existence of human permanent residents.

The line or latitude marks the beginning of the southern area known as the Antarctic. It has only one continent which is Antarctica.

South Pole

It is the southernmost point on the Earth’s surface and is located on Antarctica, one of the seven continents.

The latitude is 90° south and all the places and directions are north from this point.

In the South Pole, the sun rises and sets only once or twice every 12 months. The ice sheet is almost 2700 meters thick and it is the coldest place on the planet.

What are the major lines of longitudes?

There are two major lines of longitude which are the Meridian and the antemeridian which we have explained as follows:

Prime Meridian

The 0° longitude or the Prime Meridian is an imaginary line drawn north to south through the Greenwich observatory in London, United Kingdom.

The Meridian divides the Earth into the Eastern and the Western hemispheres.

International Date Line

Located 180° east or west of the Prime Meridian is the International Date Line. It is an imaginary line drawn on the Earth’s surface that defines the boundary between a day and the next day.

The International Date Line is located halfway around the Greenwich Meridian or 0° longitude i.e. 180° east or west.

It is also called as the line of demarcation.

When you cross the International Date Line from east to west you add a day and from west to east, you subtract a day.

Which is the longest longitude?

There is no longitude which can be considered as the longest or the shortest. All the longitudes on the Earth’s surface are of equal lengths which interface at the North Pole and the South Pole.

Which is the shortest latitude?

The shortest latitudes are the Arctic Circle and the Antarctic Circle which lies at 66.5° north and south respectively. The length of the longitudes is approximately 16000 kilometres.

What are the 3 zones of latitude?

The zones of the latitude determine the climate zones on the plant which are as follows:-

Polar Zone

This zone is the area between the Arctic and Antarctic circles which extends from 66.5° to the north and south latitude to the poles.

The weather in the polar zone is characterized by short and cools summers and long and bitterly cold winters.

The far northern parts of Europe, Russia and Canada fall under the polar zone.

The zone experiences frequent heavy snowfalls and rarely experiences temperature above the freezing point throughout the year.

Tropical Zone

Stretching from Tropic of Cancer to the Tropic of Capricorn, the zone has equator as the centre. It spreads from 23.5° north to 23.5° south.

The climate in the tropical zone varies from tropical wet rainforests to dry and semi-arid climate of North Africa and Australia.

The tropical wet zone has hot and muggy summers with frequent rainfall and little temperature variations.

The arid regions have wet and warm summer and cooler and drier winters.

Temperate Zone

The temperate zone extends from the southern edge of the Arctic Circle to the Tropic of Capricorn in the northern hemisphere and northern edge of Antarctic Circle and Tropic of  Capricorn in the southern hemisphere.

The zone lies between the 23.5° and 66.5° north and south latitudes.

The zones experience warm to hot summers and cool winters which temperature variations throughout the year.