What are the Processing Devices? | different processing devices, Functions

In this article, you will get an idea of Computer processing devices and how they function, and the different major types of computer processing devices that are used.

When a computer receives data from an input device e.g. keyboard, the data is transmitted to an output device e.g. monitor, via an intermediate stage.

A processing unit is any system on a computer that manages the incoming data in the intermediate stage of processing.

Related Topic:- Full Form of Computer

Computer Processing Devices

What is a Computer processing device?

Computer processing devices play an important role in processing operations. They are all used to process the data, using instructions from the program.

They manage the functions they do various calculations, and they even monitor the hardware tools.

CPU recognizes and executes all of our instructions that can be either input/output operations or numerical or logical comparisons.

This also coordinates the tasks of other computer units and ensures everything runs smoothly. The CPU has a lot of tasks to perform.

What are the different computer processing devices?

 Some of the devices used for information processing in computers are:-

  • CPU
  • Clock
  • Chipset
  • Data bus
  • Expansion slots, Network cards
  • Address bus

Central Processing Unit

The computer system’s principal and most critical computing device is the central processing unit.

It is also called the computer’s brain because it carries out a computer program’s instructions, as well as all computer functions.

A computer can’t perform any of the operations without a CPU.


The Circuit Board is the motherboard. The CPU, memory, buses, and all other components are located within the computer.

It allocates power and facilitates connectivity to and from the CPU, RAM, and all other hardware components of the computer.


Inside the computer, the clock is used to synchronize all computer calculations. It ensures all the circuits within the computer operate simultaneously.


Chipset is the name of a group of integrated circuits that work together and manage and operate the entire computer system.

The chipset manages the flow of data throughout the system.


A data bus is found on a motherboard, and it is a collection of wires used by the CPU to transfer data in a computer between components.

Also Read:- Types of Computer Buses

The Databus is two-way. Data flows from microprocessors to computers used for memory and input/output.

And then data flows into the microprocessor from memory and input/output devices as well.

Expansion Slots

An expansion slot is a motherboard-based socket. It is used to insert an expansion card, also called a circuit board that provides additional features like video, sound, or memory, etc. to a computer.

You must open the system unit to plug a card into the slot. A card has a socket at its end which sticks out of the device unit so that a cable can be plugged into it.

Popular card types consist of graphics, sound, and network cards.

Network Cards

A network interface card is a device that is installed in your computer to link the user to the network.

Must Read:- Types of Computer Network

The main feature it supports is to connect the system user or standalone system to a specific full-time network.

The network interface card is abbreviated as an Ethernet card, network adapter, LAN adapter is also known as NIC.

It is a type of expansion card that connects to the network with the same function.

Not so popular is the Ethernet standard, so most computers build network interfaces directly into the motherboard.

NIC contains electronic circuits that are required to communicate using wired connections such as Ethernet, and wireless connections such as WiFi.

Address Bus

A set of conducting wires that hold addresses only is the address bus. The address bus is unidirectional.

The data flows from microprocessor to memory, or from the microprocessor to devices for input/output.

The address bus carries memory, I / O (or peripherals), and other addressable devices around the processor addressing signals from the processor. Control signals move but not in from the processor.

Random Access Memory

The RAM (Random Access Memory) is a temporary unit that stores data in the computer system.

It retains the data for a brief period of time, and only temporarily when the data is processed.

How do the processing devices function?

Computers are provided with data, they process coded data, and generate the results. Data is entered via input devices, like a keyboard or mouse, on a computer.

These data are processed into information and then issued on components such as monitors or speaker sets.

First, the data received from an input device passes through an intermediate stage before being output on relevant devices.

For example, the CPU takes input data and performs the necessary processing including calculations, and saves it on the memory of the computer.

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