“Sansad Bhavan” – The Union Parliament of India

Sansad Bhavan” – The Union Parliament of India

This article will take you through the Legislature of the Union, “SANSAD BHAVAN” – The Union Parliament of India.

We have furnished details pertaining to the Union Parliament such as what it is, both houses of parliament (Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha), their strengths, and special powers.

Also, its functions, powers, and more are included for you to understand better.

Some times Sansad Bhavan is also referred to as Sansad Bhawan or Parliament of India.

What is “Sansad Bhavan” or the Union Parliament of India?

The Union Parliament is the legislature of the Union that controls all the law-making and democratic political processes.

The Union Parliament consists of The President of India and two houses, i.e. Rajya Sabha and Lok Sabha.

The bills are introduced and passed only in Parliament. Once the President signs any bill, it becomes and law.

The President is a member of any of the two houses.

The Houses of the Parliament (Sansad Bhavan)

The Union Parliament (Sansad Bhavan) has two houses that work individually as well as together in certain matters. It is a bicameral legislature.

Rajya Sabha (Upper House)

The Council of States or Rajya Sabha is the Upper house of the Parliament of India.

The fourth schedule of the Constitution governs the seats allotted for the members of the Upper house.

The ex-officio chairman of the upper house is the Vice-president of India.


  • Maximum limit – 250
  • The current number of members – 245
  • Members elected by Vidhan Sabha – 233
  • Members elected by the President – 12
  • The President elects the members owing to their significant contribution in various fields

Special Powers

  • Rajya Sabha can pass a resolution stating a State list subject of national significance.
  • It can be passed with a majority of not less than two-thirds of its total members present and voting.
  • It can create one or more All India Services and can disband an existing one too.
  • It never gets dissolved irrespective of the state of the Lok Sabha.
  • Only  the Rajya Sabha can level charges against the Vice-President.

Lok Sabha (Lower House)

The lower house of the parliament is also known as The House of the People.

All the members elect a speaker who presides over the meetings and a deputy speaker to preside in his absence.


  • Maximum limit – 552
  • Current strength – 545
  • Members representing states – 530
  • Members representing Union territories – 20
  • Members nominated by The President – 2 (Anglo-Indian community)

Special Powers

  • The lower house enjoys special powers that pertain to ‘collective responsibility’ of the Government in financial matters
  • The Council of Ministers is controlled by the Lok Sabha
  • A money bill can only be introduced in Lok Sabha and cannot be rejected by the Upper house
  • Confidence or no-confidence bill can be moved and passed in Lok Sabha only
  • The demand for grants of the departments/ Ministries can be voted only in the lower house

How Union Parliament members are elected?

The Rajya Sabha can consist of 250 members while the Lok Sabha has the maximum member limit of 552.

How are the Rajya Sabha members elected?

The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected through the method of indirect election.

The elected members of the Legislative assembly of the respective state and members of the Electoral College for the respective Union territories elect the representatives of their states and Union territories.

Schedule 4 of the constitution fixes the sat quota for each state.

The members are elected with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable votes.

The President picks the 12 nominated members considering their contribution to the field of literature, sports, economics, social services, arts and more.

The number of members representing a state is directly proportional to the state’s population.

The tenure of all the members of Rajya Sabha is six years. Every two years, elections to one-third of seats are conducted.

How are the Lok Sabha members elected?

The general elections are held every five years on the basis of universal adult suffrage. It is the method of electing the Lok Sabha members.

The elective membership of the lower house is distributed among the States which is directly proportional to the population.

The President nominates 2 members from the Anglo-Indian community if felt that they did not receive adequate representation.

The term of Lok Sabha and its members is five years.

The Parliament by law can extend the term during an emergency in its operations which shall not exceed one year.

What are the Functions and Powers of the Union Parliament (Sansad Bhavan)?

India has a parliamentary government system with the Union parliament being the supreme legislative body.

The functions and powers are mentioned in the Indian Constitution in Part V of Chapter II which are as follows:-

Legislative Functions

  • The parliament can legislate over all the matters mentioned in the Union List and Concurrent List
  • In an instance of joint jurisdiction over the Concurrent List, the union will prevail over the states

Parliament can pass laws under the state list under certain circumstances such as:-

  • If the Rajya Sabha passes a resolution in the national interest
  • For the implementation of international agreements or treaties having foreign powers

Executive Functions

  • Pass a vote of no-confidence to remove a government from office
  • An adjournment motion to draw the Parliament’s attention to an issue of urgent public interest
  • Through committee on ministerial assurances, ensure that the ministers to the Parliament are fulfilling their promises or not
  • A censure movement to disapprove any policy of the government strongly
  • Can initiate a cut motion to oppose any demand in the financial bill brought about by the government

Judicial Functions

  • The Parliament has the powers to punish members in case of breach of privileges or infringement of them.
  • A privilege motion can be moved by a member if suspected that any member has committed a breach of privilege of the house
  • The legislative privileges are immune to the judicial control
  • The power to punish the members is not subject to Judicial review
  • Impeach the president and the vice president, the judges of the Supreme Court and high court, Auditor General Etc

Electoral Functions

  • The parliament makes and governs policies and laws made to conduct the elections throughout the country
  • The Union Parliament elects the President and the Vice President
  • Removal of the president by a resolution passed by the Rajya Sabha and agreed by the Lok Sabha in the given circumstances

Amending Powers

  • The Union Parliament possesses the power to amend the constitution of India. Both the houses possess equal power pertaining to the constitutional amendment.
  • However, the amendments are required to be passed in both the houses to be effective.

Other Powers and Functions of the Union Parliament of India (Sansad Bhavan):-

  • It has a vital function of deliberating matters of national importance before the passing of laws or resolutions
  • The Parliament can alter the boundaries of the states or union territories
  • It functions as an organ of information where ministers are bound to provide information in the houses when demanded by other members
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