In this write up we will be talking about Software Testing. Consequently, to make the topic more clear we will first give you a short brief on What is Software, its components, and importance.
What is Software?
Software is a group of instructions that helps the user to perform a specific action. In general, computer programs are termed as software. The software tells the computer how to perform the task.
The software consists of a large number of Programs. An application is a group of programs that are developed by software developers, for the end-users.
Every application needs a platform to run and it is hence dependent on system software.
Software plays a very important role between the user and computer hardware.
Any task cannot be performed on a computer without the help of the software.
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What is Software Testing?
Software testing is a process of assessing the software if the functionalities are working as expected. This process focuses on finding a defect to ensure that the software is of good quality.
Types of Software Testing
Two types of Software Testing that are performed on any application are as follows-
- Manual Testing – Manual testing is a process of testing software without using any tools and the tester who tests the application does this manually. They usually verify all the features mentioned in the requirement document and verify if it matches with the application that is being tested. Testers normally test the application having end-users in mind. Manual test plans are designed which includes all the details of the testing plan for a project.
- Automation Testing – Automation testing is a process of testing software using an automation tool. In this method, testers execute the test script, which is written to find the defects. There are many automation tools available in the market. Some of them are Selenium, QTP, etc.
There are two types of testing methods that are used. They are
- Static testing – It is also known as Verification. This is a process to make sure if we are building the product right i.e., to check if the product that is developed based on the requirement is working as expected.
- Dynamic testing – It is also known as Validation. This is a process to make sure if we are building the right product i.e., to check if the product that is developed is right or not.
Different types of Testing Approach
There are three types of testing approaches and they are as follows-
- Black box testing – In this type of testing, the testers test the functionality of the software (on the screen) without testing the internal code (Program) that is used to run the application. This is also called as Input-output testing or specification-based testing.
- White box testing – This is structural testing wherein the application’s internal code is tested. The main advantage of this approach is discovering a defect in the internal structure, design, and code. Testers should know to code to perform this type of test on an application. White box testing is also known as open box, glass box, transparent box testing.
- Grey box testing – This type of testing is a combination of both white and black box testing. Here user tests both internal code and the application. It helps to improve the overall quality of the product.
Software Testing Categories
Functional Testing – This type of testing is performed to test the functional requirement of an application that needs to be tested. This makes sure all the functionalities are working as per the specifications.
Some of the functional testing types are as follows –
- Unit testing
- Smoke testing
- Integration testing
- System testing
- Localization testing
- Globalization testing
- Regression testing
- Exploratory testing
- End-to-End testing and so on.
Non-Functional testing – This type of testing is to test the non-functional requirements of an application.
Some of the non-functional testing types are as follows-
- Performance testing
- Load testing
- Scalability testing
- Usability testing and so on.
What is the need to write a test case for software testing?
A test case includes step by step procedure to perform a test of an application along with the expected and actual test results. It is a set of instructions on how one needs to validate the system.
A test case should be constructed efficiently so that the tester is clear on what and how the testing needs to be performed on an application. This helps to determine if the application is working correctly.
Writing a test case effectively comes with experience and one can write it if they have enough knowledge on the application that is tested.
The identification of test scenarios is a very important step in the testing life cycle. Some of the tips to testers on writing a test case are-
- The test case should be simple and not very complex to understand
- Keep the end-user who is going to use the application, while writing the test case
- Make sure all the test cases are covered with clear steps.
- Do not skip negative and corner test cases.
- Have the steps mentioned in the test case so that it is easy to execute.
- Prioritize all the test cases.
- Mention the data that is required for each test case.
- Do not forget to review the test cases once the test case authoring is completed.
What is a test requirement?
A test requirement is a document that is developed by the business which mentions the requirements that need to be tested. This contains both functional and non-functional requirements.
A tester needs to use this specific document before analyzing the requirement and writing the test case. Based on this, a test strategy and test plan can be planned.
Different Testing Tools
There are different types of testing tools. Automation testing is performed by using automation tools.
This approach is used if the testing has to be performed repetitively on any module so that manual work is reduced.
The activities that are required for an automated testing tool are to develop test scripts, run the automation and verify the results.
Some of the most commonly used testing tools are –
- Test Complete
Test artifacts are the documents that are shared to the client, business and other stakeholders in the project.
During the process of testing, the team maintains a list of documents to track the process and details on the project. These are called test artifacts.
Some of the test artifacts used are –
- Test case document
- Test plan
- Test strategy
- Traceability document
- Test report
- Daily execution report
- System test report
Agile Methodology in Testing
Agile testing is a methodology that follows the agile software development process.
The testing starts when the project begins and there would always be an interaction between development and testing teams.
Product quality is the main focus and objective of agile methodology. In this approach, every cycle of development has a testing phase involved.
Testers communicate with the development team to analyze the requirements. Testers and developers go hand in hand to deliver a quality product.
Some of the advantages of following agile methodology in a project are –
- It reduces documentation.
- Flexible to requirement changes.
- As there are daily meetings held, daily fixing of issues helps the testers to test the application thoroughly.
- Saves time and money.
- Improves product quality.
Scrum in Testing
Scrum uses an agile methodology which is an incremental process. Development is performed in iterations in different cycles and the same is provided to testing teams for testing the application.
Normally this methodology is used for complex software and projects with adjustable scope and involves frequent change. Each project may have multiple releases.
This helps the development and testing team to focus on each piece of the application, allowing them to provide a good quality application. There are 3 different roles in scrum testing.
They are Product Owner, Scrum Master, and the team. The product owner describes the features of the application that needs to be tested, decides the release date.
Scrum master then assigns the work accordingly to the team and manages or coordinates the productivity. All the review meetings and daily scrum meetings are scheduled by the scrum master.
The team consists of 4 to 10 people, based on the scope of the project. They actively participate in all the meetings and work on their scheduled areas of testing.
Importance of Software Testing
Software testing is very important for every product. It helps to identify the defects that are introduced during the development cycle.
Every industry uses software and it is very important to have an efficient and quality software that does not break the system when anyone uses it.
It is hence very important to provide users, with a good customer experience that adds value to it. If defects are identified in the early stage, the cost would be lesser, thus saving money.
Testing also helps in the security of the product and the user gets a trustworthy product.
Customer satisfaction is the ultimate goal of any owner and this is the main reason why software needs to be thoroughly tested before getting introduced to users.
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